In recent years, the price of crude oil has fluctuated greatly, which has caused large fluctuations in the price of chemical products. Under the traditional free-to-market trade model, the chemical industry often has an embarrassing situation that "upstream companies sell low and downstream companies buy expensive". With the compression of profits, price risk has threatened the stable operation of enterprises.
After the linear low-density polyethylene futures were listed on large trading houses in 2007, its impact on sales and procurement has become increasingly apparent. In recent years, more and more industrial enterprises have begun to use futures instruments to resist price risks, and gradually began to explore the basis point price trading model based on futures prices.
Recently, with the support of Dashang’s 2018 basis trade pilot project, Shanghai SECCO Petrochemical Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as SECCO) and midstream enterprise Zhejiang Mingri Holding Group Co., Ltd. (hereinafter referred to as SECCO) Tomorrow) Strong forces, through the active promotion of Guotai Junan Futures, not only successfully carried out the basis trade experiment, but also further promoted this model as "inclusive + basis trade". People in the industry generally believe that this will become a new direction for business management and trade models.
A bases on the spread price to develop the right trade
As an upstream production enterprise, SECCO often encounters problems in downstream customers that are difficult to reasonably price for forward orders and that the downstream consumption changes lead to supply and demand mismatches. Traditional spot pricing and sales models are increasingly unable to meet market developments. As a trade-oriented enterprise, there will be exposure on both the purchasing and sales sides tomorrow, and the sudden large fluctuations in prices will undoubtedly bring great operational risks to the entire enterprise.
"The risk cannot be eliminated, but it can be managed and transferred through financial derivatives." said Chen Fangyi, manager of the investment and research department of Tomorrow. It can be said that tomorrow is one of the earliest chemical companies to accept and introduce the basis point price model. Not only did they start to form a professional team very early to learn and study the use of futures and other financial instruments to manage price risk, but also tried twice in 2015 and 2016. Over-the-counter options trading, at the same time participated in the big business in 2018 basis trading and OTC options pilot projects. The continuous learning and practice of financial derivatives tools has enabled tomorrow to innovate its business philosophy and expand its business path.
Based on the previous exploration experience, in the second half of 2018, in a business exchange with Guotai Junan Futures, tomorrow came up with an idea: Can you combine the upstream and downstream through the combination of basis price and OTC options to form a A new business model?
The purpose of the basis point price is to transfer the risk brought by absolute price fluctuations. Based on the agreed futures price of a certain month, the trading parties determine the transaction price by adding or subtracting premiums and discounts (basis) on this basis. The parties to the transaction convert from the game of absolute prices in the traditional trading model to the game of basis.
The basis fluctuation is small, and it has the characteristics of regression in the delivery month, which is relatively easy to grasp. During the pricing period, both parties can decide whether to carry out buying (selling) hedging operations in the futures market. As a basis buyer, you can lock in purchase or sales in advance, arrange production and manage inventory in a reasonable way. Pricing is based on the futures market, and you can freely control the pace of point price and flexibly control purchase costs. Basis sellers can lock in sales in advance, occupy market share, transfer price risk, and obtain reasonable profits.
At the same time, if a service provider signs a forward order with rights in the same period of upstream and downstream, and connects the upstream and downstream of the industry into a whole business, then the basis price and the combination of options can enable upstream companies to rise or fall in the forward market. Choose a relatively high price settlement to prevent the situation of "selling cheap"; enable downstream companies to choose a relatively low price settlement no matter whether they rise or fall in the forward market, to prevent the situation of "buying expensive". The service provider pays according to the final settlement price when the order is settled. The upstream ship to the delivery location designated by the terminal factory according to the service provider's delivery requirements, and the terminal factory customer signs an order to lock the cost of raw materials and obtain
From January to June, the cumulative total output of domestic plastic products was 26.704 million tons, an increase of 7.3 percentage points year-on-year. In June, the output of domestic plastic products was 5,267,700 tons, an increase of 14.18 percentage points year-on-year. The data shows that the growth rate of my country's plastics industry has slowed down significantly, the overall benefits have declined, and the industry's loss has increased. The plastics industry has reached a critical stage of structural adjustment and transformation.
The main development goals of the plastic processing industry during the “Twelfth Five-Year Plan” period are that the output of plastic products will increase by an average of about 12% annually, the total industrial output value will increase by an average of about 15% annually, and the total profits, total profits and taxes will increase by an average of about 18% annually. The average growth rate is about 9%, and the new product output value rate and the contribution rate of scientific and technological progress have been increased to 10% and 40%, respectively. But the less optimistic data in the first half of the year shows that there is a long way to go for plastics companies to achieve these goals.
Overall, technological upgrading in the context of product differentiation will become the key to further development of the plastics industry in the future.
Plastic particles are used as raw materials for the production and injection of plastic products, and are widely used in various plastic products. The product quality, color and moisture of the plastic particles directly affect the quality of the plastic products after the injection of the plastic particles. In particular, the surface moisture of plastic particles is an important factor affecting their products. Since the injection molding process is a high-temperature molding process, if the surface of the particles contains a certain amount of water, during the high-temperature molding process, the surface moisture will vaporize to generate bubbles. The existence of plastic products may also cause the uneven thickness of the plastic products, thereby affecting the appearance and strength of the plastic products. Therefore, the actual measurement of the moisture content on the surface of particles has become a key procedure for plastic particles and plastic products.
In actual work, the method we use for the moisture on the surface of the plastic particles is the weight loss method of heating, that is, by heating to a certain temperature, the moisture on the surface of the particles is volatilized, and then the moisture on the surface of the particles is measured. Commonly used analytical instruments are oven heating, electronic balance weighing, and manual calculation. Because this test method takes too long and has certain errors, it is not very convenient to operate. Now more manufacturers choose the rapid moisture analyzer to test the moisture in the plastic particles, usually infrared or halogen moisture analyzer. Reference model: MB23 infrared rapid moisture analyzer, MB25 halogen rapid moisture analyzer. The time to test a sample is about 5-10 minutes, the result is highly accurate, and it is very convenient to use.
Composite film refers to a new packaging material composed of two or more films combined together. Composite film is the fastest-growing packaging material in recent years. The reason for its rapid development is that a single variety of film can no longer meet the requirements for effective protection and beautification of commodities. The composite film can take advantage of its shortcomings and become a packaging material with excellent performance. At present, there are hundreds of varieties of composite films, and the number of composite layers has also developed from the initial two layers to more than 10 layers.
Composite film is made of plastic film as the base material, and then compounded with other materials, such as paper, aluminum foil, cellophane, etc. Its main performance is as follows:
1. Good heat sealability. Many films, such as stretched polypropylene and polyester, have poor heat sealability. However, compounding with polyethylene with excellent heat sealability can greatly improve the heat sealability. The vinyl film is the inner layer;
2. Good air tightness, moisture resistance and heat resistance. Cold resistance, fragrance retention, UV resistance and other properties can effectively protect commodities, especially beneficial to: preservation of food;
3. Good product performance, composite film has better transparency, lightness, good printability, suitable for decoration, plus rigidity, stiffness, good shelf effect, attract customers;
4. It has excellent mechanical properties, it has good tensile strength, impact resistance, tear resistance, puncture resistance, bending resistance, pressure resistance and other properties, plus good adaptability, which is convenient for mechanized operation;
5. Lower. Under the premise of ensuring comprehensive performance, it can adopt a method of matching high and low-cost materials to manufacture composite films, so the total cost is low.
6. Lighter, easy to carry, it can replace some metal cans, glass bottles and other packaging containers, the weight is greatly reduced, it is also convenient for transportation, easy to carry, and also easy to open.